Spatial-economic analysis of low carbon hydrogen supply to the European market

This study analysed low carbon hydrogen supply alternatives to the European market. The key results were the following:

  • Production of hydrogen using renewable electricity is most competitive in Morocco
  • Production of hydrogen using renewable electricity is not competitive compared to SMR with CCS production
  • For larger distances, transport as ammonia is most competitive for that region
  • High LCOHT for large distances can potentially be a driver for global price differences
  • Hydrogen produced through SMR with CCS in Rotterdam is the most competitive
  • If one only considers PEM, supply from Morocco is cheaper than production in Europe
  • Cost reductions in electrolysers do make this option more competitive, but does not alter the international merit-order
  • Higher capacity factors of renewables could change the merit-order